Friday, November 5, 2010

Various Technical Discussions about Columbus MAX

An ongoing collection of technical discussions about Columbus MAX will appear here.

Source: Anvil Bikes
"The Columbus MAX tube set is one of my very favorite steel tube sets so I thought I’d share a bit about it. The real MAX, which is probably most famous as the tubes used to construct the Merckx MX Leader (except the MXL’s top tube and seat stays which weren't the original MAX shape), had a 40mm x 30mm biaxially ovalized down tube and is shaped from a 35mm round tube with a .8/.5/.8mm butting profile. The MAX seat tube is also ovalized and shaped from a 31.7mm round tube with a 28.6mm diameter at the top and a 37x26.5 ovalization at the BB shell and an .8/.5mm butting profile. The 37mm axis was oriented with the long axis of the BB shell. The chainstays are 36mm tall and 18.5mm wide with a .6mm wall. When you consider these are steel, they're monsters!The real MAX top tube is based on a 31.7mm tube and biaxially ovalized to 37.5x26mm with a .7/.4/.7mm butting profile. When installed on a frame, the 37.5mm axis followed the long axis of the head tube yet traverses the seat tube, meaning it is significantly wider than the seat tube, which creates either a really weird looking lug or a whole bunch of cool opportunities depending on your point of view. I hold the latter.MAX seatstays are typically delivered ovalized to 18.5x12mm.After a scare that MAX was history, it appears that MAX tube sets are still readily available through Columbus even though it hasn't been carried on the books for more than a few years now and I have been able to keep several sets on hand. I use MAX top and down tubes on a lot of the MTBs I build and the entire tube set on many custom road frames. These days I like to build a lot of road frames with a MAX front triangle and a Foco rear. That combination results in a really sweet frame. Check out the gallery and you’ll see some examples.Contrary to popular belief, the MAX tube set really wasn't that heavy at around 1500 grams for the frame tubes (mitered for a 58cm bike, not raw). That made it only about a hundred grams more than the standard EL/OS tube set and a little less than today's Columbus Thron. The weight culprit was those Monster Truck sized lugs. Depending on the casting, the BB shell alone weighed 260 to 290 grams! Compare that to my normal butted Tig cromo shell weight of 100 grams. The balance of the MAX lugs weighed another 170 odd grams (not including dropouts), so the lugs added 3/4 of a pound right there. The plus side is that it's all added in good places and an owner of a properly assembled MAX lug bike can consider it the last bike you should ever have to purchase even if it's not the last one you'll want.Along with MAX there was also a "MiniMAX" tubeset which had the same shapes as MAX, but all the tube sizes were reduced .125" with the same or less wall thickness and the chainstays were short at 26mm compared to today’s normal 30mm (for steel). This gave a lighter frame. None of it is available, at least not through normal channels, which is a real shame.

There was also the MAX MTB tube set. It's the same as the Road set save the seat tube and chainstays, which have thicker walls and the chainstays having a single bend for MTB tire clearance. The Tandem set was also regular MAX but included a keel tube.

A lot of folks will tell that the MAX tubeset is too stiff for anybody but big strong guys and that's just not true. It’s an excellent choice for a lot of people in 150+ pound range for road bikes and just about anyone for MTBs. It’s tough, it’s not too heavy, and it’ll be there for you in thick or thin and it looks cool. What more could you ask for?"

Source: Bicycle Guide, 1993-1997 time frame

"Columbus MAX tubing is ridiculously oversized and ovalized, to the point where it's simply too stiff for most of us. It's this kind of stiffness that has endeared Max to countless professionals, especially the big sprinters.

For most framebuilders, knowing MAX is Columbus' big gun is enough. But for Eddy Merckx, it had to be improved. Merckx had to have his own tubeset, tweaked to suit the rigors of stage racing and long one-day events for his sponsored pros (team Motorola, Team Lotto and team Telekom). It's short wheelbase, coupled with the stout pipes, let the MX Leader descend like nobody's business. Point the bike downhill, aim it at a corner's apex and you'll sweep through in a magic arc. Those fat, aero-shaped MAX fork blades do a terrific job of relaying tactile information from the hub to your hands. As far as high-speed handling is concerned, it's hard to imagine a bike being much better than this.

The MX Leader is a great bicycle, with timeless geometry and a short but storied pedigree. But it's more than a bike that will last you (barring rust or a crash) a lifetime. It is a piece of a legend."

Tube specification for Columbus MAX circa 1989:
Description: Tube set for special racing bikes made from the exclusive Nivacrom® steel with exceptional strength characteristics. The elliptical cross-sections are oriented in such a way that the major axes are directly opposed to the highest active and passive stresses. This set has been designed to optimize efficiency under the demands of extreme bads: sprint, time trials, climbing and strong centrifugal acceleration when descending. Nivacrom Steel - Weight: 1900 g
SEAT TUBE, Thickness mm: 0.5/0.8 butted, oval shaped and tapered
DOWN TUBE, Thickness mm: 0.8/0.5/0.8 double butted, orthogonal oval tube ends
TOP TUBE, Thickness mm: 0.7/0.4/0.7 double butted, orthogonal oval tube ends
FORK BLADES, Thickness: 1/0.8 butted, air profile
CHAIN STAYS, Thickness mm: 0.6
SEAT STAYS, Thickness mm: 0.5
STEERER, Thickness mm: 2.3/1.55 butted, plus helical reinforcements
HEAD TUBE, Thickness mm: 1.5

This blog is dedicated to all things related to Columbus MAX. If you have a contribution please email me at

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